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广东省学位英语考试考试-作文开头和结尾的方法与句型荟萃

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段落的组织手段有按时间、空间、结构、逻辑、过程的次序进行表达的顺序手法,也有运用举例、比较和对照、下定义、归纳、因果、推理、驳论等的表达手法。不管运用何种手法,段落必须服从表达主题的需要,通过摆事实、讲道理、举例子和提供有关数据信息的方法,透彻阐述,清晰地向读者展现你所叙述的一件事、一个人,解释的一个现象或一个道理,讲解的一个过程,或表达的一种看法或信念等。如:
①导入Ladies and gentlemen,①I’m very glad to②主题句welcome you all to our factory.②First of all,I③事实wish to say a few words about our factory.③It④举例was set up in October,1986.④We spent onlyfourteen months in finishing building our factory.⑤事实⑤There are five workshops in our factory and 1 250 workers here,most of whom are young⑥事实举例people.⑥More than 400 workers have had some college education and more than 800 workers have⑦事实had middle school education.⑦Our factory⑧事实mainly produces fertilizers(肥料).⑧In the past few years our factory has advanced rapidly.⑨⑨事实Now we have raised our output of fertilizers to more than 400 thousand tons a year.⑩The totaloutput value of our factory added up to 100⑩结尾句million yuan last year.
Thats all. Thank you.
本段的工厂介绍用了具体的材料作事实,详细的数据举例,避免了空洞的形容词和大量的个人观点和感情流露。这种以事实(数据、时间、结果等)为组织段落写作的手段使听者很容易就可以清楚了解事和人。
段落的组织手段常用以下几种方法:
3-4-1         例证法
例证法是通过用主题句对该段落的中心思想进行总的阐述,然后通过用典型、生动、有说服力的客观事实来支持主题句的观点,使其得到完美充分表达的一种段落展开方式。
【例5】One main reason for war is a difference in ideology. For example, nations have engaged in struggle over the merits of communist and capitalist systems of government. They frequently aid other countries in wars in order to topple governments that do not agree with their principles.
【点评】这段文章第一句为主题句,即战争的一个主要原因是意识形态的不同。然后通过For example这个最常用的例证过渡词引出了一个例子,即许多国家对共产主义与资本主义政治制度的观点不同,资本主义国家往往会支持那些旨在推翻共产主义国家的战争,反之亦然。
3-4-2 因果法
因果法主要是用来探索事物间因果关系的一种段落发展方式。作者通过客观、正确的推理,分析事物发生的原因及产生的结果来阐述主题句、展开段落,使段落合乎逻辑,使主题句的支配思想令人信服。
【例6】Cigarette smoke contains nicotine(因), several cancer produing or irritating substances and carbon monoxide gas. (结果1) Damage to the lining of the bronchial tubes is much more common among cigarette smokers than non-smokers, even when there is no obvious disease. Some of these changes are considered to be pre-cancerous. (结果2) Lung function is generally reduced among cigarette smokers. Cigarette smoking is a greater hazard than other factors --- such as community air pollution --- in the causation of cancer and chronic bronchitis. (先因后果,一因多果)
【点评】该段运用了 “原因       →多结果→点明主题”的推理顺序,对吸烟危害性的阐述颇具说服力。
3-4-3比较对照法
比较对照法有两种方式,一种是对人物或事物采取逐点比较或对照的方法;另外一种是对人物或事物采取集中比较或对照的方法。在实际英语写作中,我们常常又可将两种方式结合在一起交叉使用,因此比较对照法有了三种形式。
A.先描述甲方,再描述乙方。
【例7】My hometown is different from what is used to be juse a few years ago. (甲方1) In the past my hometown was a small quiet place. (甲方2) The streets were for the most part narrow and winding. (甲方3) The houses were small and shabby. (乙方1) Now, there are broad strees which are lined with fine shady trees and bordered with large, imposing buildings (乙方2) Many more are still in construction, (乙方3) You can also find crowds of people here and there. (乙方4) My hometown has become noisy but active and prosperous.
【点评】本段通过对照的手法阐述了主题思想: 我的家乡今天与过去相比发生了巨大的变化.首先集中表述了家乡的昔日(甲方),然后集中描述了家乡的今天(乙方).
B. 甲乙双方同时描述,逐点分析。
【例8】Jane and Karen have many things in common. (甲乙双方) To begin with, both girls have the same background. (甲方) Jane was born and raise in the West, (乙方) and so was Karen (甲乙双方) Next, both girls are interested in the same kind of subjects in school (甲方) Jane likes French, history and English. (乙方) In the same way, Karen likes Spanish, history and English. (甲乙双方) Furrthermore both girls want to be teachers. (甲方) Jane plans to become an elementary school teahcer, (乙方) But Karen wants to be high school teacher. As you can see, the two girls are almost like twins.
【点评】本段通过比较的手法同时逐点分析了JANE 和KAREN的相同之处。层次分明,思路清晰。
C.比较对照同时使用。
【例9】I have two good friends. They are quite different in character and yet have something in common. (对照) One of them is a jolly fellow and fond of company, and the other is a quiet and rather unsociable sort of shap. (对照) The jolly one likes all kinds of games. He is a clever, but be doesn’t care much for books. The other one, however, likes being alone and loves reading. He never plays games. (比较) In spite of all these differences they are both so really kind and sympathetic, so honest and straightforward, so loyal and true. (比较) They are both fine and usnselfish fellows. I like them both.
【点评】本段同时使用了比较和对照。即对照写出了两个朋友的不同点,又用比较法写出了他们的相同点。
【例9】 Smoking is very popular among people.Some of the smokers believe that smoking can ease their nerves hardened with socialpressure. Others are after its stimulating effects.But they sel-dom think of the effects it might have on other people's health,especially when they smoke in public places such as cinemas,waiting rooms,buses and trains。Smoking is harmful to health•It contributes a lot to lung cancer,of which many people have died in the past few years.And it isthe cause of many other diseases.In fact,not only smokersthemselves suffer from these smoking-related diseases,but alsonon-smokers who involuntarily inhale the tobacco-polluted air。
【点评】本段写出了一般人对吸烟的正反看法,并以吸烟有害健康的事实与之对照。
3-4-4 定义法
定义法是指扩展段落时,解释词、短语或给各种事物和概念下定义,以解释和阐明某个概念的本质特征,说明段落的中心思想,从而达到作者陈述论证或反驳某一观点的目的。
【例10】What then, is generation gap? Generation gap refers to the distance and contradiction between the old and the young. It’s a common phenomenon that exists everywheere in the world and influendes both the old and they young. Generally speaking, generation gap resuls in different enderstanding and appreciation of the great and oxnstant changes of the world, different reaction to new things, and different attitudes to traditonal principles and belief.
【点评】本段采用定义法,从不同角度阐释说明了主题句中的概念generation gap。段中先对这个词组进行概括性的解释,然后又表明了它的广泛存在以及导致的结果,清楚地阐明了概念,充分地表达了内涵。
3-4-5 归类法
归类法是指按照人物、事物的不同特点,性能进行分别归类而展开段落的写作方法。在归类时要注意描写事物的不同类别。不能把类别不同的事物交错、混杂在一起。
【例10】 Speeding is now the most common motoring offence in Britain。Offences for speeding fall into two classes:exceeding the!imiton restricted road, exceeding on any road.A restricted road isone where the street lamps are 200 yards apart,or more。
【点评】本段将超速者分为两类,对两类超速者的特点分别加以描述,使段落清晰流畅。
【例11】There are three kinds of book owners. The first has all the standard sets and best sellers unread, untouched. (This deluded individual owns woodpush and link, not books. ) The secondhas a great many books-a few of them read through, most ofthem dipped into, but all of them as clean and shiny as the daythey were bought. (This person would probably like to makebooks his own, but is restrained by a false respect for their physical appearance. ) The third has a few books or many -everyone of them dog-eared and dilapidated, shaken and loosened bycontinual use, marked and scribbled in front to back. (This manowns books. )
【点评】本段运用归类法把三种不同藏书者的形态栩栩如生地展现出来,条理非常清楚,有很强的连贯性。
3-4-5         综合法
事实上,在具体的写作中,常常采取对上述几种方法的综合使用来展开段落,说明段落的中心思想。这种段落展开方式称为综合法。
【例12】Our eyes give us information all the time. But our brains decide what is important to us. For example, if you walk down a crowded steet, you will see many faces. But if you see someone you know, you will notice him emmediately.
【点评】本段分别使用了例证法、比较对照法和因果法等3中方法展开段落,谈论我们眼见信息在大脑中的过滤和反射。


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